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l^S muINES IOWA MAY 22 1922 









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Rev. H. A. Rhodes, 

Chairman Executive Comm. Chosen Mission; 
Keijo, Chosen. 

Cleveland Ohio 
May 31 1939 . 

Dear Dr. Rhodesj- 

The Assembly is nearing the end. It has in general been a good meeting. With Dr. 

Sam Higginbottom as Moderator, Foreign Missions have come in for a goodly share of 
honor and attention. The program of the General Council, for the promotion of all 
church work has been heartily approved. This includes much that marks progress. The 
various Boards have reported good work with financial shortage limiting much that should 
have been done. The Pensions Board was given permission to delay giving pensions to 
preachers still preaching on salaries after 65 years of age. Decrease in income required 
this. The Report on Social problems came in for tense discussion and amendment. The 
resolution as to War is still to be passed. 

The Chairman of the Standing Comm, on Foreign llissions is Dr. Howard Moody Morgan. 

Dr. Weaver K. Eubank is Secy. The ^diole Coram. has shown our vdiole Foreign work full 
sympathy and good will. There has been no abatement of Mission interest. Our Popular 
meeting for Foreign Missions was well attended last night even after a long hard day 
of work in intense heat. The report of Coram. on Foreign Missions has been drafted and 
passed by the Comm. The section on Chosen has been worked out with Dr. Holdcroft, 

Mr. Soltau, Dr. Koons and members of the Board all accepting it in the, presence of the 
Comm. 30 it contains nothing radical. It does re-iterate the action of last General 
approving the policy of the Mission and Board to withdraw from secular education. It ' 
leaves the Seoul Girls School question for the Board to work out in conference with 
the Mission, presumably after a conference in N.Y. about June 7th. There has been no 
attempt that we know of to reverse the decision of the last Assembly and we feel that 
there are many here ^^ho would rather see the action of last year rather re-inforced with 
stronger action. 

Mr. Reiner and Dr. Koons are both commissioners. There ard ^issipnaries 

present. Miss// Bergman and Mrs. F.S. Miller. Dr. Ludlow, Mr. R%5n^. and h^ wife. 

Dr. Mrs. Koons, Dr. Holdcroft and Mr. Soltau. 

The cable which I received, 28th, has been reserved and no action based upon it taken. 

We hope that the Board will be ready to grant the larger backing after the June Conference 
if we are successful in presenting the needs at that time. 

The action taken by the Executive Comm, of the Mission at Andong , I belie ve vn.ll 
be determinative in the question. You are right . Stick and you will have the whole 
Christian world v/ith you. That is the only kind of argument of value in such an unequal 
struggle as we are in. 

May God bless the Mission and give you grace to stand faithful in this day of graat 
distress all over the world. The whole world needs Just what our Mission can contribute 
in its witness to-day. 


Herbert S. Blair. 

To be mailed after the meeting to-day 
is over. 

TaikyUf Ch*sen« 
N*t. 17th. 1940 

itrs. Oeerg* Uahau, 

649 W. 4th St. 

Ontario, Calif. 


Doar ura. iiahan,- 

Your sistor, Uise. Edna Lawrdnoo loft Korea tne end of last week. 

On Monday she s^^iled Iroa Kobo on the Yawata Maru for Yokoiiaaa. Cn 
arrival at Yokohaaa eho eeone to have been renovod from the ehijp, upon 
roquiaition of tho Proourators office in Seoul, whence a tolograa I'lad been 2 cnt 
to the police in Yokoliuoa, it seeas, deaandint; her return to /Seoul in ccnncction 
with chargee arising in connection with the trieil of eoue Korean women 
ever the violation of come political ^regulation. 

Mr. Jucl S. Ooetsman, Aaericau Vioe-Ccnsul, Yokolu^, secured her power of 
attoraey so that he could seek the refund of hor etcamuhip fare and take charge 
of ner three drafts, amounting x4 ^117.18. 

Her three trunks were landed from the ship and re«cheoked to Seoul, Korea, 
on her rail road tickets. The cheeks were iionded to the Procurator in Seoul 
and he gave inem to a poliee official to get and bring to the Poliee-proeura^ers 
office for soareh. Instructions wars given the Procurator to nave the trunks 
and unneedod' baggage delivered te l\r, F. Geuso, Treas. of our Mission, 

at 186 Reuohioho, Keijo, Chosen. (Seoul), in ease the tninge were no longer 
required by taa poliee. 

The American Consul General, Mr. 0. Gaylord Maran, lius been in touch with 
your Bisters diifioulty since the matter was reported to him from ^he U.S.A. 
Legation in Tokyo, probably Wed. A.!i. the 13th. !yU*. liarah given much time te 
help um he could in tne mattor. h'o went porsonally to the Foreign Department, 

Seoul and asked for the nighsst and best treatment ox your sister, consistent 
with the laws. Also he sent Viee-Consul, Edwards with me' to the Proeurajeors 
office on Friday the 15th. Z P.U. to seek to have bail arranged before tue arrival 
of your sister who came in on tho 3.38 train, under police sscort. 3ut bail 
was not possible and it was stated triat uuider favo:.rable conditions bail might 
bs eonoidered after ten days. I was promised an intervisw at five. 

At tho Station several of us tried to meet Edna. Dr. Avloon and Dr. UeAnlis 
and Mr. Pieters, and Viee-Consul Edwards all saw them take her off the train and 
she acknowledged their o<*eetings but no conversation was possible. I was down the 
platform too far to see her there. 

At live o'clock, Friday, I was given lialf an hour with your sister in the 
procurator's oifics in tne prseenoe of the Procurator, Mr, G. Salto. He seems 

to bs a very courtcoua gentclman and knows English so tiiat we could talk with 

him freely and tills also allowed Edna and me to converse more freely. She was 
well but weary of the excitement and strain. She showed no fear and was very 
cheerful in her questions and answers. Only one sentence st^ks out clearly in 
mind,-" I do not like CiS^ounlsm and you any you do not like Coj^nism, g e n i -m n 

so I am sure that wo will get along nicely in this matter". She told me about her 

feeling OK und her money and trunks at timt time. I get your address from nor 
there and asked for any message but all she asked was that we keep ner trouble 
out of the Kewe-papere. But I lau, nedand told ^lei^ I presumed tiiat it was all 
over Aoriea before she t>et back to Seoul. She evidently wanted no word sent till 
ehe could eend it herself. While tiiere I tried again to arrange bail but it 
wae impossible. So I gave the naate of Mr. Geneo and told tnem'that our Mission 
would £,uaranteo L'dna und put up whatever bail funds were demanded and that Mr. 
and Mrs. Genso were ready to invite her to theij; home and have her appear 
whenever n-sded for examination. This may bo possible after a few days. I was 
sorry to nave to shake iiands au€ leave her there after about half un hour of 
comfortable conversation. I could not discuss the charges at all, nor anything 

eonneeted with her arrest. 


After that I went to Ur. Gtneo's at the Yunmotkol Compound and ^.ot kr. Censo 
to go with me te the Provincial Police headquarters iriiither they were removing 
Edna. We took some bedding and a folding eot and a basket of dinner and seat 
them in to her but were not able to see her again. Miss. Marion Hartness. of 
137 RenehidOy KeiJOf has undertaken to prepare her meals and has secured a 
ypung man te takd her food across the City to her thrice a day. 

I am sorry that I did net ask her as te her elething. She had her 
suitcases with her in the preeurator's office and I saw them searching them 
with your sister helping , but I am net sure that she had sufficient heavy 
woolens fer a cold room. So yesterday I wired Mr. Cense » asking him te make 
suri that she oad these things provided for her. They usually previde no fire 
fer those detained there. 

It is net elear Just what may be helpful as to legal assistance. Presumably, 
a preliminary examination may take several days, possibly ten days. After that, 
in ease they find eause fer bringing definite charges against her, she will be 
definitely held for trial and when that would take place would be hard to tell. 

It may be better not to seeure legal counsel toe soon. The Procurator has 
wide discretion in all such eases and he may find that he can free her quite 
early. We surely hope so. 

Of all ladies of our Mission your sister would be the last whom most of 
us would dream of taking part in any illegal activities. We are quite sure 
that the Procurator will oarly find that ho haeawise and saintly guest in his 
taro and that he will find it his privilege to give nor all the shelter and 
help allowed within the law. 

Ofeourse we have net the elightest idea lirtiat nas gene wreng te get your 
sister into thia treuble. ho one has theb^ least idea that she has done anything 
intentionally wrong. She has dodisated her life to doing good to, others, 
and her good works will show forth the more they inveatigate her eenduct. 

Ac eur Uiasien Exeoutive Cam. was in sessien in Seoul at the time this 
oeeurred, it was my privilege te try to help your sister ns I eould. Now 
we havo scattered and Mr. Genso is probably doing much more fer ;ier than anyone 
from outside could do. He has your address and will no doubt keep you informed 
as to the progreasn of the ease. As he has uent a cable already, we presume 
that you arc already informed of the difficulty. We all truet and pray for 
an early releaeo and a speedy return to America, wiiliaer she ma procatding when 
this trouble developed. 

Yours sincerely, 

Herbert S. Blair, 

Chairman. Executive Com. Chosen 

. in U.S.A. 


Rev. H. A. Rhodes D.D. 

38 Alexander St. Princeton N.J. U.S.A. 

Taikyu Chosen. 
Dec. 30th. *40. 

Dear Heidie,- 

Thanks for your good letter of Nov. 29th. Rejoice in all the 
quiet comforte of dear old Princetin while you may. But dont get 
stuck so tight there that we will never see you out here again. 

We are g^Slpng to need you as never before. Come back as soon av you 
can. Not much you can do but stand and endure but that is just what 
is needed now. 

Everywhere the Koreans are saying that the Shrine issue is 
all over now and that the next thing is the new Totalitarian, 
foreign exclusion program. Distressingly disappointing to see men 
participate in a ceremony of that kind one day and have them 
denounce the whole thing the next day. Of course they know thiWperetly 
they will have to cool their feet by the side of some of theit 
friends if they refuse to attend the regular meetings where these 
new programs are staged. Hooper will have copies of the Declarations, 
Better get him to send copies to those most concerned. 

Lillian Ross is declining to evacuate Kangkei. Daisy Hendrix 
is going up to join her. That is the spirit. 

They report that they had 17 at their Christmas Dinner at P.Y. 
E.H. reports a grand round of Christmas festivities in Seoul. At 
Chung- ju they had several out of Station guests. Here in Taikyu we 
entertained Chair-yung and Andong Stations, and are going right 
on with a fine series of Bible Study meetings with John Crothers 
leading, So we are in the midst of things to-day, Mr. Voelkel 
is the afternoon preacher. 

But these gatherings remind us the more of the vacant Stations 
over the country. Something terrible has happened. It just about 
did somb of us up to stand there in Chemulpo and watch the two 
hundred go out to their ship lying far out in the harbor. Will 
the most of them ever come back? It seems to me that the battle 
has only begun and that the more we have here the stronger will 
our power be to hold the high positions gained by the fifty six 
years off devoted toil. 

Of course the churches are all going right along with their 
programs. New Executive machinery has been erected to rule the 
Presbyterian Church after the minds of those who want immediate 
obedience in the mobilization of all life to try to save the day. 
The fever is too high for us to try to do much yet. But our 
presence is a vital element in the picture. 

The Board's Letter 839 on"the Chosen Question*'as they call 
it has just come this last week,- Christmas week. We have not had 
time to digest it yet. Your article in the Presbyterian seems to 
give it all the credit it deserves. It does not sounU too hopeful 
as I have read it. Why so much white wash? why the threat to secure 
moi*e power for the Board when that could but mean the cutting 
of field autonomy? Why all the demand for thought control and the 


denial to us of the right to write even to the members of the Board even 
where a large llission has no other recourse to protest against what is 
believed to be unchristian mal-administ ration/ Why all this continued 
condemnation of Mission con^)laints when the issue before us is as to 
how Christian Missions are to face resurgent paganism when the Board 
inconsistently slurrs the issue and protects wrong doing of its workers? 

If you want my reaction you have it. Better than this report is the 
concrete demonstration of purpose in the Henderson case and the recent 
action looking to the oS^sing of the Seoul Girls School, in case the 
present plan is not accepted by the Government before Jan. 1st. Also 
there is a rumor that pressure is being used to carry out the Missions 
policy in reference to C.C,C. But this is not sure yet. These things are 
good. Hendy has said that he has presented his resignations. I am not 

able to say what that involves or promises. He still seems to be on the 
job over there daily. It would be a shame to have him slip out of his 
problem there lightly on the present wave of anti- foreign nationalism 
in such a v/ay as to eliminate the proper witness to Christian conviction 
which should be made in his withdrawal from our school. 

In reference to the Board Letuer 839, we should take some action 
I presume, as a Mission. We have delegated this matter to your group 
of three and are happy that you have gained the central re-affirmation 
' of the Board's stand from which the Foreign Council I presume has been 
long leading them away by various inconsistencies. Our spontaneous 
reactions here may be quite belligerent but we do not want war. We 
know that contention harms the work nere more than it straightens out 
the thinking of certain Board Secretaries. Confident as we may be that 
no such one sided Report would have been written uy a group of neutral 
Commissioners had that been called for, still we have gained much for 
the right cause of the Gospel and may presume that step by step the 
issues will be met in a better frame than during the past two years. 

But it is evident that vigilence will be called for still. Whau action 
do you suggest that we take at our Spring Sxcom. Meeting? Please let 
me know at once your suggestion as to this. We do not want to take any 
action which will undermine what/you have accomplished. 

Our situation is not clearing up but rather grovdng more tense. 

Ofcourse we have nothing to do with political developments but we cannot 
but see what is doing and we know that we will be caught in whatever 
difficulties arise. This being so, I contemplate the withdrawal of 
most of our remaining group gradually? Also I see no call for the 
hasty return of others tham those who can stand the gaff and are needed 
to stand by and be prepared to go down with the ship. There seems to be 
no qualification in the opposition movement now. In Japan things may be 
more hopeful. Here we may look for the worst. Christian leaders who act 
as tools are in the saddle absolutely and no one dares peep. We are boarding 
up the TAdndows and doors of sikch buildings as ar^ not occupied. 

But this does not mean that we do not need more of 3’’ou to return. 
P.Y.and Seoul are being terribly depleted. Roberts and V/ill are needed,/ 
you and Coen are needed, just as soon as your furlo rest id over. V/e 
are glad Chamness is planning to return. Arch Cambell and Allan Clark 
and Geo Adams should be gotten to return as soon as possible. WTiat 
about the possibility of the return of Soltau? Wont we be needing him? 

There is no telling how easy or how hard things may go but the more of 
us the safer for all who remain and the better the witness and influence 
for perpetuation of the true Gospel standards. 

Happy New Year to all of you 
will and Coen. Love to Weedie. 

pyt/ 3 t~ 


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Apart ado if 4 
Guatemala City, C. A. 

July 31, 1947 

Dear Dr. and Mrs. Rhodes i 

The only way I will ever get a letter to you both is do it this 
way. I hope you do not object to carbon copies. I have had this on 
my mind for months, it seems to me. 

v<e h ave hdd no word from Pasadena for so long that we don’t know 
what the score is. Shirley is so wrapied up in her Gerry that she 
doesn’t tell us what is happening in other quarters. Phyllis is at 
work this summer in Vi/hittierj so we don’t hear much from her either. 

As for Florence, I don’t really knov/ who owes whom a letter. I prob- 
ably am the guilty one. -^^nyway, I often remember that just aoout a 
year ago all were under the same roof— strange as it seems now 
that we are more or less scattered to the four corners. 

The day my old college annual came from Korea was something to be 
remembered. Not until yesterday could I ewen remotely imagine where 
it was found. But from the Korea Klipper I see that lots of books were 
found in the Pieters attic. So I suppose that was the place. After 
having Ijiven everything up lor lost and never expecting to see any of 
our things again, it was like someone from the dead. The precious 
Korea dust on its covers was left there. I didn’t have the noart to 
wipe It off. 

I notice too that tixere is a Korean desk in the attic. I suppose 
It could just as well be mine as anybody’s else. It seeras that Mrs. 
Genso is asking, for any markd of identification. V/al.lace gave me mine 
for a weadin'^ present, and I do hope this turns out to be it. Though 
I am not sure what I cpuld do about it if it is mine. Having it sent 
here is out oi the question, 1 fear. Of course, I am crossing the 
bridge long before I get to it. ^yhow, the only thing that I can think 
of IS a crack all down the door which is on the right as you look at it. 

left 10%# of letters and, stuff in mine and I have the key. I wonder 
if Dr. J^odes would speak \to Mrs. Genso about it. I wish 1 were there; 
I bet I could find several 'things that mean something to me; but i.ave 
no value otherwise. 

A good oit of the time we think that we are in Guatemala to stay; 
but when letters come from Korea, we weaken. And I mean weaken. Just 
after we ciune back last fall the first letters came; while we were at 
Annual meeting, to be exact, halace had just told the Lission that we 
were going to ask for a x^ermanent transfer; but those letters headed us 
off. Still, we feel that "^uatemala needs us more than Korea does. *^ou 
have no idea how much there is to do here. k.nd wg seem to get along so 
slowly; not we personally, but the Cause. 'vVhile Wallace speaks Korean 
well, 1 do not; but ^ do get along with *^panish. 'I feel that bhere is a 
place here for but I am not sure tiiere is Korea. ^ couldn’ 

much. So I feel tnat my wanting to ^o back is mostly * self ish* 
in the final analysis, we shall 

U. So ,e don’t Know. 

I don’t type well; but I can do better than t Is looks) this type- 
wri cer IS too old. :.e hear tnat there is new one lor us at the .^oara, 

on the 
it would 

getting it from t. ere to here is the big problem. A bunch of folks 
ca me down from New york Just lately; ^ wish somebody had been on the 
ball and sent it with them. Wallace is of the dpinion that the type- 
writer maybe wasn’t even there when they legt. But 1*11 bet it was. 

\Ve shall probably have to wait until ^hristi^s, when a group of the 
Baord’s Seminar comes down. 

Every once in a while we wonder if Dr. Rhodes ever got his birth- 
day present we sent him last year. 

I have an English class at our boys* school coming up now in a few 
minutes. It nearly finishes me; the kids are so irresponsible and lack- 
ing in Just plain ordinary honesty. It is not ground into them from the 
beginning. The school does all it can to correct this lack; but you 
know now it iss give me a child until he is 7 or 8 and you can have 


Our youngsters are ge ting along. ‘“.Ibert has not been well for 
sometime. He has had a round of worm medicine and still is not well. 
Lola -Beth continues her own unique self. Befroe many mohths have 
passed we are to be moving out to our fiission Pamj that means that I 
Siiall have to teach Lola Beth. She looks forward to it; and I do too. 
The only tning is that iiie will not have her companions every day. 

ICrs. Idiodes, I do want to bear from you. I seems such a long time 
since we left you standing outside the House of R^st. And Dr. Rhodes, 
we want to hear from you--tell us all about Korea— everyttiing. 

v;ith e. lot of happy memories. 


31 January 1932 

Dear Dr. Rhodes, 

I have been intending to \vrite you ever since I 
read your article on Gutzlaff in the November number of the 
FIELD. Thanks so much for it. All these footprints of the 
past become more and more valuable as time passes. So much 
g is lost at best ^ that we should guard and put on record every 
* item possible. Last year I picked up the THREE VOYAGES in 
which he gives an account of his visit to Korea that you 
I mention. I see from Dr. Horace *s Catalogue that you have a 
» copy of it in the Landis Library. These things that happened 

/ a hundred years ago all had to do with preparing a way for 

us who came after. Many thanks for your investigating mind 
that keeps constantly on the alert for facts and data that 
are of interest. The difference between us and the savage 
is that we know what has gone before and he doesn^t poor 
chap . ’ 

The YEAR BOOK of PRAYER has ^ust come to hand and I have 
it at my elbow. I am so glad that the list still holds on 
so much of it unbroken. On page 33 however , where I read 
Rev. William M. Baird and all his many duties now stands 
a blank. His memory is a very sweet one, modest, true and 
faithful, what can beat it^ I have a list of letters nine of 
them I run off as the verse recordsZi l.j.pj l.g.g; f.m.t, 
and I know of no one who lived them out more truly than 
Dr. Baird. I am glad I knew him and that he was a friend of 
mine . 

Your troubled days grow apace in Asia. Where will this 
Manchurian dispute land the world next. We have Just been 
hearing of the attack on Shanghai and the dreadful havoc 
done. The Commercial Press, the great printing house for the 
whole country, has been destroyed along with a great loss 
of life. I see we have forty missionaries or more there not 
counting the children. They will all be greatly distressed 
by these doings. The day of universal peace is not yet though 
some of my acq.uaintances tsfZk talk confidently of a warless 
world just in sight, just round the next corner. The poor folk 
in Shanghai could give an emphatic denial to any such world 
as yet. 

We are looking foarward to a visit from the Genso*s early 
in the summer. How nice it will be to have with us once more 
members of our Korean family. The years that are gone keep 
returning again and again in silent processions through the 
mind as we call up this and that^but^best of all is when we 
actually see the faces and hear the voices. We did enjoy Mrs. 
Sharrocks and her daughters. A very short visit it was but 
nowforgotten. ^ 

^ When will you and Mrs Rhodes be passing England? Or 
Helen, Paul or Howard? ’iVhen you do we shall welcome you as 
visitors from a planet we used to live in, a daer old p’anet 
hundreds of years ago it would seem. . LiiL 

'fiiCOLU)diL0J^ OIL 

1 . 


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•PHONE 4161 


Court House News: , 

Ex-Missionary Leaves 5,000 Yen 
In Japanese Bank to Sister Here 

Orlando, Central Florida Furnishing Scores Of * 
Motor Mechanics to Army— Coroner's Inquest ■ 
In Wewahootee Shooting Set Monday 


One of the most unusual wills ever filed in County Judge John G. ' 
Baker’s office was revealed yesterday when letters of administration 
were granted to Elizabeth Best Ford as administratrix in the estate of ] 
her late sister, Margaret Best, who died in Orlando April 15. i 

Miss Best, formerly a missionary in Pyongyang, Chosen, Japan, , 

bequeathed 5,000 Japanese yen to<* — ^ 

three sisters and a brother in the Kobe, Japan, and a bank in Seoul, 
United States. The money is on Korea, 
fixed deposit in the Hongkong and j 
Shanghai Banking Corporation of ! 







F.y Dear Rhodes;- 

Fairfield Iowa, 

Kay 17/1911 

Thank you so much for keeping me posted 
about affairs in KangKai. Ever3r scrap of news from the field is 
received with delight. I am. sorry that you have had such a difficult 
situation to meet-- I knov; how it hurts for a man to see his church 
rent asunder by such devilish work as has been m.anifested, but then 
these situations will arise as long as the Qevil goes around like a 
roaring loon. If you fellows up in Eang -Kai had no problems you 
would Jbecom.e jelly fish, and tha^twould be a sad state of affairs. 

We "mdsy" along in about the sario^ach day, and let m.e tell you that 
it is ^getting to be most dreadfully monotonous. V/’e are longing , 
longinP^ LONGIN'!, for the day that will see us started on the way 
hom.e. Kit has been a long hard pull trying to regain that priceless 
thing that I lost, m3'’ health. Rhodes guard your health as you 
would guard the apple of your eye. If you do not knov; how to eat 
aright, by all means learn how; and if you drink coffee, do for the 
sake of your health and your work, give it*up. When 3;ou drink a cup 
of coffe you take into your system four grains of caffeine, and for 
all practicle purposes caffeine is the same as uric acid. The only 
thing that is accomplished b3’’ taking that cup of cdiffee is that you 
have placed an added burden upon the liver, for it has to strain out 
the poison that you piit into the blood when you took the coffee. 

Is it an y wonder that people get torpid livers when the3'’ use their 
livers in that way? Nobody ought to have a torpid liver, people 
would not have such a thing if the 3'" treated them:selves right. 

You couldnt possibly get an3>^ kind of an]|imal to drink a decoction 
of coffee, simpl3’- because the’s natural inst inttstell him 
that the stuff is a poison and he absolutely refuses to take it. 

The only difference between the alchohol habit, and the m.orphine 
habit, and the cocaine habit, ahd the coffee habit, is simpl3?- a 
difference in degree. The ver3; fact that people who are slaves 

to the coffe habit, cannot miss their morning cup of coffe without 
having a headache all day^ is proof positive that the drug is in^'urious. 
Y’ou m*ay call me a crank, a fl3'‘ wheel, an eccentric, or any$fi$^i|.,;; old 
thing, but from now on as long as I live I am going to know the food 
value of the stuff that I Jrake into my stom.ach, and I want to tell 
you that I do not propose to put anything there that will injure my 
health. This morning I went out on ;bhe track and ran half a mile, 
and in a few da3’'s I expect to do a mile. On june 2nd. I will be 
fifty years old and on that day I expect to be able to do three 
quarters and perhaps a mile. For months I have not touched flesh 
foods and I never expect to eat them again. It has taken me months 
to get started but praise the Lord I am on the up grade. Three m.onths 
ago it was all I could do to run a block, ^ It is worth everything 
Rhodes, to conserve that pticeless thing that We call health, the 
value of which is above rubies, I will not charge 3 t-ou an3’'thing for 
this lecture. Gine my love to all the Station. 

Most sincerel3r yours. 

0^3. Kju>^ ztlxjdir 

"LILk iJUIlJZ/ji 

auowC jA 


Illy dear PriendS 

Mo-untain Rest 

29. 1937 

Have you "been saying, "TOiat a. long time ajid no letter from Dr. McCune”? Well, 
better late thau never, I could give alibis but one or two will be sufficient— Busy 
for the Boa-rd of Eoreign Missions among the churches is one ree.son and laxik of funds 
ejiother, (in Korea the small cost was met by friends.) New friends been made 
ajid I am sending them the first letter. Have you forgotten me? 

I have so much news I don*t know where to begin. Have you been reading the pa,- 
pers about the Japanese aggression in China? Isn*t it awful? Well, you can imagine 
after you read the enclosure on the "Shrine Situa-tion" that it would seem quite im- 
possible for us to return to Korea now, ¥asn*t it good of the Sunday School Times, 
Philadelpliia, Pa. to publish "Can Christian Missionaries Sanction Shrine Worship?"^ 
In June 6 th and 13 th issues the facts thal so many friends have been asking for were 
published. They cut out the pages and gave them to me to send to my friends. I 
hope you will take the Sunday School Times, It gives fearlessly the truth on vital 
onestions of the day and the very best Bible notes published anywhere. If you are 
a Sunday School teanher or pupil you cannot do without it. Well, that's the biggest 

Now you are waiting to hear about iiq'’ wife's recovery, I wrote you that it was 
nothing short of a calamity. On November 6 th she ha.d the operation, a silver pin 
being put through the bone instead of her being put in a cast. She can never say 
"Silver and gold I none," anjr more. Three months in the hospital, then on her 
crutch and brace for three months more. Now a cane is used, 1.1^1 But she is plucky. 
And are we ha.ppy? 

I'm sure you want the news of the children. The Kingdons (Anna Catherine, our 
oldest de.ughter) have completed a. year in their new church. Pilgrim Congregational, 
in Honolulu, where Robert is pastor. Their three children, Robert McCune O'', Anna 
Carol (6), and Henry Shannon ( 3 ) axe growing and in fine health. Do you raaall ten 
thousand Koreans at their mid-week service praying for our son McAfee at death's 
door five years ago? Prayers were answered. He recovered and came to America. In 
1935 ^6 received his M.A, degree and taught in the University of California last 
year. In June he received one of the much coveted a.waxds from California State Uni- 
versity, the Mills Tra.vel Fellowship of $l600. He will conplete residence work on 
his Ph, D, degree this summer. His wife, Eveljrn, (da.ughter of Dr, Becker, a mis- 
sionary in Korea), and da.ughter, Helen Louise ( 3 ). will sail with him for Japan, 
Korea and China, in September, It seems almost a miranle, doesn^t it? Helen Marga- 
ret, (Do j^’ou recall "Throxigh Peggy's Ife^es"?), has been such a. joy and comfort. Be- 
cause of her faithful and efficient work in Columbia. University, New York, the de- 
gree of M. A. was granted her in June. And our youngest. Shannon, you may recall 
married Edith Blair (da.ughter of Dr. and Mrs, Blair, missionaries in Korea.) a. year 
ago. He taught in Syracuse University and received his M. A. degree there. He has 
been granted a Fellowship at Clark University where he will continue work on his Ph. 
D. Degree, In our rejoicing we will say as we do in Korea, alter reciting such 
blessings, "TShat wonderful Grace of GodJ" 

We are here in the Berkshires with a. fine company of missionaries (e.bout 60 
including children) having such a. refreshing time with perfect clima.te and delight- 
f-ul fellowship. We are in Judson Cottage, 

Wha.t of the future? All in His hands a.s it has a.lways been with us. One 
door shuts. God opens another. We are waiting to see vdia.t the Will of our Lord 
is. Pray for us. We are ha.ppy in a. sort of reckless to the Will of God. 

Most sincerely yours. 



O. R. AVISON, M. D. LL. O. 

Chosen Christian College 



Sept, bth, iy32 

My dear i)r. Rhodes: 

Your good letter liTritten on July luth on ’’President Taft” 
was forwarded to me at Sorai Beach but l have had no opportunity 
to go into the matter further, i twice set out to go over to 
Sorai and consult the date on i.iT. mcj^enzie ’ s grave but failed to 
do so. On the other hand, 1 am as certain as it is numanly possible 
to be that ivjr. ivioKenzie died not at the beginning of the summer 
but in the middle of the summer wnich would correspond with your 
date of July 26th or 25th and bring the dedication of the church 
to August 3rd. I know that we had already been sometime at our 
Ban Bang house for the summer when^^the messenger came , arriving 
one afternoon while we were all at^prayer meeting and i can remem- 
ber very distinctly the hurry and rush of my father and, i think. 

Dr. Wells in getting ready to go dov;n to Sorai to do what they 
could for ivir. tickenzie. 

in regard to the baptism at Sorai, 1 think I can ascer- 
tain the state by consulting the diary of my father's two trips 
whxch I have at my home. My recollection is that the baptism was 
done during the first trip but i will look the matter up and let 
you imow as soon as possible, 

in regard to the two elders who were supposed to have 
been elected when the West Gate Church was organized in the Fall 
of 18b7, 1 was much puzzled, i have always understood that wnen 
Soh Sang iun was elected an elder some years later that he was 
one of the first to be so chosen so that i am considerably puzzled 
as to the statement that any elders were chosen at sc early a 
date. However, I am writing to the Rev. Soh Kyung Jo who is now 
in Tientsin to ask him if he can throw any light on the question 
and I will write you as soon as 1 hear from him. 

One reason why I have not written you before is because 
of the deep regret 1 feel over your decision to leave the College. 

I have expressed myself on the subject so frequently to you that 
I shall not trouble you with further arguments at the present 
time, but 1 certainly regret the whole matter very very much indeed 
and wish that there were seme way by which ’you could be brought 
to change your mind and finish out with us the service which you 
have given to Korea and which you have so ably given to us in the 
G.C.C. The loss of yourself and Dr. Billings in one year is a 
loss to the spiritual and religious forces of the College which ws 
can harl^ affoid and i do not just see how your places are to be 
filled or who can be found to speak your message and do the work 

which you have done, i have the highest respect for Ivt. Coen . 
and should he come in your place 1 shall welcome him with open 
arms hut I am quite frank to say that I doubt whether he will 
be able to do just the peculiar service which you have done. 

He will not comraand for sometime the respect you have commanded 
and his words will not carry a weight of your words. 

Things are moving very fast apparently for within the 
space of a few months we lose Dr. Billings and yourself and are 
probably soon to have Dr. R. K. Smith as our College Physician 
for at least a year. This, I think, is a step and plan which 
holds a great promise for the future both for the Smiths and for 
ourselves. No one can tell, of course, whether the e:q>eriment 
will be successful or not but there are many of us wno believe 
that in different surroundings and a different community that 
Dr. and Ijts. Smith may still be successful worKers and certainly 
the college community is in great need of a qualified physician 
for our staff, our students, for the children’s clinic which we 
have tried to establish, for the agricultural students who will 
be here this fall and for the rural com unities around us. As 
I wrote to Dr. Smith this is in i.iany ways a very great opportunity 
for the right man and we can only pray that the right nan may be 
f ound . 

,!e all had a very good summer at Sorai and our family 
returned hone on the ’’Black Duck” (all seven of us). \'!e were 
taken by^atorm. ana took rei'uge on an island for five days, uur 
non-arrival caused great excitement and it was reported in the 
newspapers that we had been missing for eight days and we were 
probably drowned. This caused considerable excitement and since 
our safe return we have been overwhelmed by messages of congratu- 
lations and love which are very gratifying and pleasing, although 
we feel rather ashamed to have caused so much concern for us over 

Rlease give our very kindest regards to Llfs. Rhodes and 
to all three of your children, and believe that whether you come 
to the College or whatever may be your work our hearts are with 
you and that we shall look forward to welcoming you back to Korea. 

Yours very sincerely. 




William p. Schell 
Supervising Secretary 

Miss Ruth Elliott, Director 
Horace H. Underwood 

Acting Director 

May 2hA9h^ 

Dr .Harry A.Rhcdes 
229 Wilson Avenue 
Uniontov.Ti, Pennsylvania, 

I?y dear Dr .Rhodes- 

Your note written on ¥a.y 22nd v.-C-s received yesterday 
and I an very glad to know that you are thinking of writing the article 
you mention. I have no desire to trespass, on that field and if I did, 
do not seem to find the time to get dovm to it. Your own work on the 
History of the Church gives you much better equipment than mine. I shall 
Bv-Tiit with interest your article and hope that it may have wide circulation. 

In regard to my own trip, it became apparent something 
over a month ago that there w^ould be no hope of my getting to China as a 
missionary. About the same time, the organi?:ation vhich had previously 
been in touch with me again contacted me with a proposition that I go out 
as an employee of the Government. After several trips to Vfashington, I 
have consented to do this and i am to report in Washington on the morning 
of June 12th. According to their present plan I shall be in Washington 
for about a week, after vhich I will return to Brooklyn and they expect 
that I wil] fly to Chine sometime between June 20 and 27. I do not yet 
myself know the exact nature of the v/ork they wish me to do in China except 
that it is, of course, connected with Korea and Koreans, The officers of the 
organization have indicated their complete willingness to have me do either 
religious or philanthropic work in my spare time, and i hope in this way 
to be able to do at least a part of the work which I wanted to do as a 
missionary. Furthermore, I do not share the prejudice against Government 
employ which some of our religious leaders seem to have, I even dare to 
hope that while in such employ I may be able to be of some service both to 
Korea and to our own country. If the above plan works out, I should be in 
China by the first of July, There is also quite a strong probability that 
Dick will arrive in the seme locality by the end of summer or early fall. 

He will, of course, be in the Army, but it seems probable that he will be as- 
signed to work with my organization. Of course, any and many changes are 
possible, but this is the way the set— up looks at the present time. 


Chosen Christian College 


Dr, H. A. JUiodes 
38 Alexander street 
Princeton, New Jersey 

Ky dear Dr, Rhodes; 

Your letter of March 5th came to hand in yesterday’s mail and many thanks for 
the same, in regard to the p.M.B.S. the price of all real estate is now regulated by the 
government and we find that it will be impossible to get more than ¥200,000 for the property 
and the terms and arrangements for payment are exceedingly doubtful, A further suggestion 
has come from Dr. K. S. Oh tiiat we rent the entire property to him for a period of three 
to five years. This seems to many of us far in a way the best plan yet. It allows the 
P.M.B.S. zaidan hojin to retain the title to the property with the hope that at the expira- 
tion of this period it may be possible to re-open work. It takes off from our shoulders 
the responsibility and the bother of rents, eviction of undesirable tenants, property 
management, etc., while providing for a moderate income from the property, on account of 
the present exchange regulations and rate of exchange^to sell for ¥200,000 at present would 
mean that we were getting not more than about ^40,000 for the property. This money could 
not be easily transferred out of the country and the question of sale would immediately 
bring up the whole question of the status of the zaidan hojin, its continuance or the trans- 
fer of its rights to seme other organization of a similar nature. This in turn would raise 
a question as to what constituted similarity and you can see for yourself th^t the^^ight 
be a very considerable. difference between what the courts considered to be a'similar in- 
stitution and what Mr. Pierson consider to be a similar institution. Miss Kinsler is still 
of the opinion that the best thing to do is to sell the property. However, Dr. Miller, 

Dr. Koons and I strongly favor this plan of rental which means a still further suspension 
of the work of the school, but leaves the door open for continuance under the possibility 
of better conditions. Dr, Miller and Dr. Koons feel with me that there is no reason 
supposed that bank deposits will have any greater degree of security than real estate, in 
fact, we are inclined to believe that for holding purposes real estate is a better risk, 

I expect to see Dr, Oh again in a few days and will talk over with him the possible terms 
of such a lease, I find myself rather embarrassed by Miss Kinsler’s opposition as I con- 
stantly feel as my own position as Chairman of the Board is one in which I do not belong, 

I am not anxious to do anything contrary to the desires of the friends in America and 
only wish to preserve for use according to the original purpose of the donor this valuable 
property, I 

In regard to my own position, my previous letter refer to the fact that although 
Blair last year indicated very strongly that the only difficulty in the way of continued 
happy relationships with the Mission was my retention of the position of president. He 
and Clark and others have now conveniently forgotten all this and are insisting that the 
title of honorary president or president aneritus which the Board of Managers has given me 
and my election as a coopted member on the Board of MiUnagers are contrary to the Mission 
policy that they constitute rebellion, etc. etc. It is our understanding here that the 
wording and meaning of both Board and Mission action referred to positions of ’’administra- 
tion and control". Non representative membership on a large Board is certainly neither 
administration ^RitiPr control i^ile the title is purely honorary and carrietS' no powers what- 
soever. Dr. Blair a]^so wrote ^ to me statiij^ my attitude and policies were‘'’anti-Christian*^ 
that I was'Vebellious', '^defiant , and'^unfair. I have twice written him asking him to 

specify in what particulars I was wither rebellious or defiant and have not, yet, received 
any answer. The spirit in the Mission continues much as it has been through all these 


April 2, 1941 

- 2 - 

Apr. 2, 1941 

Dr. Rhodes 

years Vtfhen failure to abjectly acquiesce in the decisions of the machine is considered 
rebeAious. The same spirit was shown in the grave reluctance of the Committee to do 
anything for the Seoul Foreign School, although the P.Y.F.S. was closed and they themselves 
stated that they had no expectation of re-opening it. The Executive Committee finally 
passed permission for our extention of furlough, but it was only done due to the enforced 
absence of Dr. Blair, and Dr. Clark from the meeting. According to latest decision there 
is to be no annual meeting? this year lest there might be unexpected opposition to plans 
of the Executive Committee. It is all very discouraging and I am very weary of these con- 
stant struggles against fellow workers, against the unsympathetic sections of the powers 
that be and against that portion of the church which sees in the present situation an 
opnortunity to grab property and privileges to vrtiich it has no reeLL claim. If it were not 
for a streak of combined with the conviction that i would lose my o\»n self- 

respect I would gladly sell everything we have and retire to live somewhere peacefully 
and quietly at home. It is fairly plain that a large section among the controlling powers 
would rather we were not here. It is equally plain that such men as Bemheisel, Clark, 
Hill, Kinsler, Reiner, Blair and lass Klnsler, Miss Butts, Miss G. Bergman would be glad 
to get rid of us. When you add to this the undoubted fact, there is at least a section 
or group in the Korean Church which shares these views^ tt se^s as though it must be 
worse than folly to insist on staying on. However, I can only adl according to my own 
conscience which thus far says,'^stay, Blair and his gang seem to think that this is for 
some selfish purpose of my own pleasure, while I do not care a great deal what such mewii 
think. I sometimes wish that they knew how much I would like to be out of the whole 
business and how much easier it would be to "kow-tow" to the Co»v\« as one is expected 
to do rather than keep on fighting. Despite all their talk about conscience it never 
seems to occur to them that people do sometimes do unpleasant things for conscienous sake. 
It is possible, of course, that conditions will change so drastically here that the 
government itself will solve the problem both for me and for the Mission. The la\test 
case in which a number of vwomen missionaries were charged with undesirable activities is 
not yet settled. At present it looks as though it might be settled very satisfactorily, 
but so long as certain sections continue to regard all such activity with such suspicion 
there is no telling what the next case will be or what new developments would be made up 
from this case. The officials have been very courteous in their conduct of the case and 
I think no one has any complaint to make on that score. 

There is not a great deal of local news except that the 7inns left yesterday and 
Dr. McAnlis leaves today. The Genso*s are planning to go in June and the Pieters at the 
same time. Mr. Pieters just met with a very serious and unfortunate accident. He was 
alone in the old Avison^s house and opened a door which opened inward and down cellar 
stairs. He fell the whole length of the stairs and knocked himself unconscious. Sometime 
later, he regained consciousness and managed to climb up stairs and called for assistance. 

He had a deep cut in his head, two broken ribs, and two cracked ribs. The rest of the 

Station is in reasonably good health though Mias Kinsler seems to be up and down a good 
deal of the time, Mr. Reiner is in Seoul preparatory to taking over the Treasurer’s work. 
In the C. L. S. we have arrived at a compromise by which the Board of Managers as at 

present constituted retains the title of the property and the administration of the 

building and endowment. The other affairs of the society are turned over for a period of 
three years to a Special Comnittee consisting of Dr, J, s. Ryang, Dr. L. G. Paik, Prof. 

C. H. Lee, Rev. James K. Chung, Bishop C. S. Chung, Rev. K. S. Synn, Rev. M. C. Lee (Holi- 
ness Church), l^r. U. K. EU, Dr. K. S. Oh and Dr. T. H. Yun^ With Dr. j. s. Ryang as 
general secretary^^is is to take effect on May 1st. The plan has the ajjproval of the 
authorities and seem 5 to be the only .?ay out of an almost impossible situation. In the 
College, you have doubtless heard that Dr. Yun is president; Dr. Matsumoto, vice-president; 
Mr. XT. K. Yu is head of the administrative section; Dr. s. J. Chey, Treasurer; Prof. p. c. 
Kim, Director of the Science Department; Prof. Hyo Rok Kim, Director of the Cocanercial 
Department and Prof. Yang Ha Lee, Director of the Literary Department with Mr. ITikaido 
as Librarian. There are drawbacks to this set up, but we hope and daily pray that they 
may be able to preserve the Christian character of the institution. The coranunity now 
gathers at the Seoul union for our church services and 25 or 30 is a large congregation. 

Dr, T^hodea 

' 3 ' 

April 2, 1941 

Last Sunday my son preached his first sermon. Next Sunday, I am to preach and Dick and 
Grace are to join the church. It is our hope that Miss Hartness can teach the Seoul 
Foreign School next fall or if not that we can get some other teacher. The Davidson’s 
are probably leaving for good this summer. The Moores of Pyongyang and i:r. Sauer of this 
city expect to leave as soon as the present case makes it possible. Spring seems late in 
coming, but is gradually arriving, ’ye think of you all and \«ait anxiously for the time 
when we may see you back on the field. 


JLtxsvue Ccr€/V\ CLSUL 


2747 Hillegass Avenue 
Berkeley 5, California 

October 11, 1951 

My dear Harry: 

In going through my letter file before starting dictation 
this morning, I turned up a letter of last March 1,1 am afraid I 
have never answered. From that you are referring to*^eedie*being 
up in Hayward for the arrival of another child. Since I received 
this letter I think I have sent you some communications and 
referred to one of our class regarding one of our second generation 

workers who is; now located a few miles out in the country in a fast, 

growing suburb of Oakland. In this last letter of yours you refer 
to Doctor Hirst being in very frail health. You refer to my June 
birthday and you gave the correct number of years. Ned and Grace 
gave me a very nice birthday party down at their house and are 
taking very good care of me now in my house. 

If you are able to get out any supplement to the Mission 

History I hope you will send me a copy even if it is onl^^ mimeo- 

graphed form. You refer to Roderick Irvin; also told that he was 
dead. I get a good deal of news about our Korea friends from the 
Korea Clipper and try to make notes on<a»y people whose addresses are 
given and also remove from my card catalog those vidio have passed away 

I recently had a letter from Hugh Miller which I took down to 
the house of one of our neighbor's on the next block and they told me 
considerably about Miller's family history and also of his first wife 
sad death. 

I hope you and* Wee die** are both keeping well and if you are 
up this way again that I will have a chance to see you. Howard's 
new church is not so very far away but I do not get a chance to get 
nut there except when son Ned is able to drive me or I have a Univer- 
sity student in for some driving. Write me when you can and let me 
know how you and Weedie are faring. 

Sincerely yours ^ 




2747 Hillegass Avenue 


Berkeley 5, California 




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Dear Friends and Relatives: 

The Advent season is here, or as some would call it "Kingdom Tide, " and before 
many more days have come Christmas will be here, the day we celebrate too often only 
with feasting and parties and forgetting the real spiritual significance of the day. 

Besides the religious services in which we may participate, may it bring you all 
real happiness, as many of you may be able to gather with your families or friends for 
the usual festive meals. Even should any of you be too far away from your families 
may the day bring you much joy and pleasure as you assemble in Churches or other meet- 
ing places for the conmemoration of the coming of the Christ which has meant so much 
true blessing to us all. 

I hope you all had a good Thanksgiving day. Here, after the Central Berkeley 
Union Service at the First Congregational Church, daughter Grace had invited my sister- 
in-law, Mrs, Hodgkin and Dr, Hodgkin, to our home for a midday dinner. 

For me, the first year since the death of ay dear wife, I have been well taken 

care ofj first by a cousin from New York, and now by my son and his family who have 

come to live with me, as most of you doubtless know, and have kept me from being too 

lonesome, I have conqjaratively good health and am able to get out for exercise and 

rides although my doctor doesn’t approve of my driving ay car, I can go to meetings 

in moderation, and I am looking forward to a family gathering in San Francisco on 

Christmas when all the nearby relatives will gather at the home of one of the nieces, 


To our Korea friends, especially those who have returned to the Orient, I would 
say that the Koreaites left here in the East Bay are reduced to our household (Ned 
being the only one of whom has seen Korea), the Frank Herron Smiths, the Dick Bairds 
who live on this same street but over the Oakland line, Dorothy Adams up near the 
University and as busy as ever, the Reiners are way up in Martinez. The E, H, Millers 
are in Santa Barbara, also the Cyril Rosses, the Ben Adams in San Francisco, and the 
Charanesses and the Henry Adams over in San Anselmo, 

We have recently had a long rainy season which has kept many of us indoors, but 
the'- prospects are better now. 

This letter takes my heartiest good wishes to you all for a happy time and the 
opportunity for many of you to gather with friends, if not with families, I enjoy 
hearing from my friends, and if you have not alreacfy written me I trust you will do so 
before this year is gone. 

Sincerely your old friend an d 


March 31st 1949 

My Dear Dr. and Mrs •Rhode si 

Your good letters came yesterday but last night I was too dead 
tired to do anything but go to bed. It is letters from our ’’own” like you 
that mean the most to us,tho we do apprecaite the letters from others 
too. I have sent to the children and to the Board a long account of the 

'9 i 

funeral. I have suggested that possibly the Bd might have it mimeographed 
for friends like you who would be interested in it. I simply cannot 
write it over and aover again by my stupid hunt and punch method. 

It was a wonderful demonstration of love and sympathy. I shall 
never gorget it but you will undertand me when I say I wish I had never 
had to see it. I thank G!od for everything in the last 33 years except 
my own shortcoming which today I bitterly regret. I thank Him for John 
and Horace and Joan here. The night after the funeral we had the collejiz. 
Board to dinher here and Joan took the other end of the table for me 
so sweetly and graciously that it was almost too much for me. 

I am trying to get badk in the work again but it is hard sledding, 

I walk over the hill and wonder why Ethel is not puffing beside me, I look 
to meet her in the halls or wait for her cheery greeting when I open 
the door in a now silent house. 

Tell people however that the Koreans are still here the need is 
still here and the greater since she is gone. Tell missionaries who 
are afraid*t’to stay at home!. but for heavens sake find some who are 
not interested in "^aTety First” to come . Actually I still dont think 
we are in any great danger. I have a great pile of letters to write 
so cannot write more even to you who meant so much to Ethel and mean 
so much to me 

Yours Sincerely 

Telephone Watkins 9-2000 

’*^(ia^le "Xadress "Inculcate, New York” 

doreign Missions and Overseas Jnterehureh Serviee 

The Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 

156 Fifth Avenue, New York 10, N. Y. 

March 17, 19h9 

To Members of the Korea Mission 
Dear J^iends; 

The Board has been shocked to hear first over the radio, then by news 
report, and now by a cable from the Executive Secretary of the Korea Mission that 
Mrs, Horace Horton Unden^ood was shot on March 17 th and died almost instantly. We 
have sent a cable expressing our deepest sjTnpathy and are awaiting further information. 

In the meantime, in order that you may have what information we have, we 
are giving you a copy of the cable sent by Rev, Edward Adams from Seoul, Korea, at 
5:28 p.m,, March 17, 19li9: 


We are also giving you a copy of the International News Service report. 

This gives details which^ as yet, have not been confirmed, 

”Mrs, Ethel Underwood, a Presbyterian missionary in Korea for twenty- five 
years, was fatally shot during a women’s tea party in her Seoul home 
today, ‘ 

’’Two masked assassins fired two shots from an American carbine in what 
authorities describe as ’a political slaying’, 

’’The missionary xvas born Ethel Van Wagoner in Kingston, Michigan, 

’’The hooded masked men opened fire as she came to the front door to 
investigate the noise of a house boy scuffling with one of the assassins, 

Mrs, Underwood died of a pe.i^orajbed.. liver on the way to the hospital. 

Another shot was fired at an unidentified woman but missed its aim, A 
speal^er at the party v.’as scheduled to talk against communism. The 
unidentified slayers escaped, 

”The killing occurred while Mrs, Underwood and her husband were giving a tea 

’’The husband, Horace Underwood, is a teacher at Chosen (Korean) University, 

’’Officials state they believe the motive for the assassination was political, 
since no robbery was involved and lirs, Underwood was known to sympathize 
with the conservative cause in Korea,” 

The "New York Times" gives a different version, v^hich in turn is taken 
from the reports of the Associated Press and the United Press, as follows: 

"One report said Mrs, H, H, Underwood was holding a meeting of faculty 
vdves in her own home| the other said at the College, Two gunmen 
appeared, one at the front door and one at the back door. They opened 
fire. It was not known vrtiether they intended to shoot Mrs, Underwood 
or a Korean poet. Miss Mo Yung-Sook, a liaison officer betv;een the 
South Korean Government and the United Nations Commission, It v;as not 
knovm v;hether the gunmen v/ere political assassins trying to get her, 
or whether they vj-ere disgruntled students, Mrs, Underwood died in an 
ambulance on the way to the hospital," 

I personally was in the Underwood home in October 19l|8 and had a chance 
to see what splendid work was being carried on by the family, Mrs, Underwood has 
alv;ays been in the forefront of the organization for service to the Korean people, 
and her personality and Christian love has reached out to all, and especially to 
those in need. Our hearts go out in sympathy to Dr, Underv/ood and family. 

Letters maj'' be addressed to Dr, Horace H, Underwood, Ur, and Mrs, Horace 
Grant Underwood, and Rev, John T, Underwood at Chosen Christian University, Seoul, 
Korea, The children in this country may be addressed as follows: 

Rev, and Mrs, James H, Under?/ood, Presbyterian Manse, Hancock, New York 
Mr, Richard F, Underwood, 18 Carnegie Hall, Hamilton College, Clinton, N,Y, 
Miss Grace Margaret Underwood, Hood College, Frederick, Maryland 


John Coventry Smith 

March 17 , 19^9 

Tear Friends of Ethel's: 

Your friend and my dear wife has gone to be with God, There is no one of whom 
it is so impossible to believe that death is the grave as of a Christian spirit 
like hers. 

In a sense her going v/as blessed. She taught her class of boys v/hom she loved, 
she came back to a meeting in her home of v/omon whom she loved. Two armed men broke 
in. She grappled v/ith one and the other shot her. She died in a short time ap- 
parently without great pain — no lingering illness. 

She taught her class at 1 :0C P.M. and came home at two o'clock for a meeting of 
the faculty women's club. The meeting v/as in progress when a man came through the 
back door and kitchen and another came in the front door. She saw the man strug- 
gling with the cook and ran out. ■‘Ihe apparently grappled v;ith the man v/ho came 
through the front door, and the man v/ho c-amc through the back door knocked do'/m the 
cook and fired twice. One shot entered her bacK and passed out under her right breast. 

After the men fled the others tried to maJao her comfortable on the floor, and 
she said in Korean "It is all right." She did not speal*. aeain. They got a mattress 
and a car and rushed her to the hospital and called us (Horace, Joeev and John and !)• 

V/e rushed to the hospital but she was gone v/hon I got there, and apparently died on 
the way there. 

The Communists have recently been threatening to kill those who are "teaching 
capitalism." They have also been recently attacking, women and children as the best 
way to terrify the men. I have long said that some day the Communists would decide 
that the time had come to kill some v/ell kno’.m American "to shov/ the world that the 
Koreans hate the American imperialists." It is no exaggeration to say that there was 
probably no one so widely loved in all Korea as Mrs. Underwood and this made her a 
good mark. She would feel, most diccp] y (could she still be further hurt; if 
through her the good name of Korea was tarnished. I beg of you in her name to not 
feel that Koreans are to blame. Already (within tv/o hours of the affair) we have 
heard from the President of Korea, the Prime Minister j a representative of the As- 
sembly and other high officials. They arc doing ovorj^hing in their pov/ei* to catch 
the assassins, though neither Ethel nor I want any Korean executed on our account. 

I cannot do her v/ork, I cannot write her letters. You will find me a poor cor- 
respondent. She knew and loved you all. She knew v/horo you lived, v/hat happened 
to you, and rejoiced v/ith or sympathized with you in your joys and sorrows. I will 
try to answer your letters but am not too optimistic about being able to do so. 

Korea still needs your relief paci:.ages, I will try and ac^cnowlcdgc them. 

\Iq shall go on as best v.’o c<an — God v:ill give me strength I beliov©. I am 
writin" this in the wee hours of the morning, just about twelve hours after she was 
killed. I am going to get Joan to mimeograph it and address the twelve hundred or 
fifteen hundred envelopes that arc needed to reach your I do not know when this will 
bo done. 

She loved you, sho loved to think that you loved and thought of Korea. She 
would have you continue that thought, that love, those prayer!^. Uc all need prayers; 
our children, I, the Koreans, the communists. "Prayer availcth much." 

Let us have those prayers for Korea. 

Yours in the grief of loss 
and in the Joy of Faith, 

Horace Underwood 

The Funeral of a Missionary 
Mrs, Ethel Underwood 

I have v/ritten to sorae of Ethel's friends the first crushing nev:s of her 
death and have written to our children a brief account of the funeral, I find it 
difficult to contemplate writing this over and over again so I aiTi writing this to 
be distributed to the friendS;, for it seems to me that there are inescapable 
inferences which may be of interest to many of you and that may help the cause of 
Christianity to which she gave her life, not only on March 17, 19h9, but ever since 
192.2 when she first came to Korea. 

As most of you know, she went to the College at o ne p.n , to teach a class 
of "her boys'*| at two she hurried hone for the month iy_mgetor^ of the Faculty IVomen's 
Club, The ladies came, the meeting was in progress. An armed man burst in through 
the front doer, another came through the back door and the kitchen, driving the cook 
at the point of a gun, Ethel ran out and grappled v;ith the man vfho came~T:?r' first; 
we do not know whether she saw the second man at once or not, Yi/hile she ^7as 
struggling with the first, the other man fired .twice, one bullet entering her back 
and passing out under the right breast,' ’ The men then went in and threatened the 
assembled women, warning them to stay where they were. The men then escaped, • After 
some little time the alarm was given and a former servant came and endeavored to 
make her more comfortable, she seemed to recognize him and said in Korean, "It is 
all right*" After further delay she was taken to the hospital but died before 
reaching there or before we, vdio were away from home that afternoon, could get to 

The United States Army very graciously offered their facilities at Ascom 
City and the body was removed there that night, Thursday, March 17th, We went home 
to find the house and grounds full of police, MP's, reporters, etc. Just after dark 
a number of Korean friends b§gan tb“cdme to see us to offer condolences and sympathy. 
Between the time of her death and the funeral no less the 1 000 peo ple from every 
class in the country called. The ivife of the President of the Republic, Cabinet 1 
Ministers, College Presidents, refugees, bo 3 rs, girls, old and young. Catholics, | 
Greek Orthodox, Protestants, Buddhists, many came as the representatives of largej 
groups v/ho did not want to "trouble us" by coming into the house, 

On Sund ay after noon. ti:ie body was brought to our home and the casket 
reverently laid in the library. It did not seem wise to have i'^open but a few of 
Ethel's most intimate friends of the last thirty years begged to XooIT^gain on her 
face and v:ere gladly permitted to do so. 

On Tuesday, the college students ta^io were to act as pallbearers came and 
carried her out to the nev; thr^e-qiUcirter. ton Mission truck "which served as hearse. 

The casket w'as literally buri^ in flovfers v^hich had been brought to the house. The 
casket was taken to the Church (Is^ Pi^esbyterian Church of Seoul, founded by ray 
father) at 10 a.m, and there still o"ther loads of flov/ers arrived. The service v/as 
scheduled to' begin at l;3Q. p»m» and we (the family) including our Korean family of 
nurse, v/ho served us for 31 years, cook and others, drove to "the church in cars 
graciously provided by friends in "the American Mission to Korea. About three blocks 
from the church I 'noticed there was no other traffic and found that all tfamb~on 
that large artery had been stopped, further on the sidewalk was lined high 
school ^tudents from several of the large Korean schools. As we left the cars to go 
up the drive to the church, the people did their best to make way but the whole drive 

- 2 - 

was so crowded that with the best of rdll on their part it was with difficulty that 
we could reach the door. We found the church packed with many standing along the 
sides and in the back. Estimates of th^^-^wmber in the church vary widely; my own 
guess v/ould place the number at around^500,J Among those attending were: three 
cabinet ministers, personal representative* of all the ministries, the wife'~bT~the 
President, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Roman C.atholic Bishop of 
Korea, the Papal Legate and representatives of all branches of the American Mission 
(state Department), the commanding General U.S* Forces in Korea, the British Minister 
to Korea and the Church of England Bishop. I have been told since that the crowd 
outside grew and swelled until it overflowed the driveway into the street and that 
"several thousand" who could not get in stood reverently there. 

The service vj-as opened v/ith a few words by our son. Rev, John T. Underwood, 
after which the pastor of the church gave the invocation in Korean, "Christ the Lord 
is Risen" v;as sung as the hjaiin, and Rev, Edv/ard ^ Ada ms of the Presbyterian Mission 
read the Scriptures in English. Commissioner Lord, of the Salvation Army led in 
prayer in English. Dr. S, J, Ghey^ Governor of the Bank of Korea, read a brief 
account of Ifrs, Underwood's life, stating through his tears that any success he had 
made ivas due to her. The Pastor ih.em read the Scripture in Korean after v;hich our 
life-long friend. Miss Alice R. Appenzeller, President Emeritus of Sv/ha College for 
Women, sang "Love Divine All Love Excelling," Dr, L. GeorgePaik, President of 
Chosun Christian University, then made a brief but beautiful address in Korean 
follov/ed by prayer in Korean by Rev, 1'L S, Lee, a refugee from the North and co-worker 
with Mrs, Underwood in the Home for Girls^n Need, which she had recently founded, 

John Underwood led in a funeral' meditation in which he scarcely referred to his 
mother but took us all to a higher level in contemplation of the joys of Christian 
Birth, Marriage, Death, Resurrection and Eternity, An American enlisted man said 
later that he felt he had been lifted up to high places. John pronounced the 
benediction in both Korean and English and the pallbearers reverently carried the 
casket to the vraiting truck. 

On leaving the church and entering the car in the street I was astonished 
to see the street lined with police, one every ^0 to 75 yards, vdth representatives 
of local Youth Organizations between the police; mounted police were stationed at 
intervals of about every I4.OO yards. All traffic was stopped and, as the funeral 
procession passed, the police and Youth Groups saluted while the crowds along the 
street bowed. It has been estimated that on the route of four miles to the cemetery 
at least 100,000 people lined the street. Even supposing that 90,000 vrere merely 
curious observers they must have been impressed. At the cemetery there was some 
slight delay to allov^ the last of the long line of cars and chartered busses to 
arrive , 

Many from nearby villages, realizing that they would have no chance to get 
into the city chui’ch, had'gone "direct to the cemetery and conservative estimates 
place the number attending the internment service there at nv ar "This 

Is IvJj’’ Ihther's World" v;as sung, and again John led in conducting the service. The 
grays'WTas filled and covered deep in flowers; the crov^d departed, and Ethel's body 
rests by that of ny mother in a beautiful lot overlooking the river. The Koreans 
had heard that we preferred gifts for some phase of Ethel's work rather than flowers, 
so before the funeral money pourjed_in until altogether some Won 300,000 was received 
which will be used for the Hc»ne for Girls in Need, Put into United States dollars 
it is not a tremendous sum, say $U00, lyut from poor people on low salaries in Won 
it was a touching tribuite, ' 


I am told that a ’’national” memorial service for her is being planned for 
April 11th, her birthday, and at that time a much larger sum is to be raised for 
some practical memorial to her v;ork. Every newspaper in South Korea except the 
extreme left papers- fla rri^^ not only accounts but editorials telling of her life 
and v/ork'and^of her death, courageously struggling with two armed men* It is our 
prayer that all this may make many think of the power that is in Christ, the Spirit 
that is in Him, and find the Salvation He offers* The whole of South Korea has been 
startled into a nev; awareness of the nature of Christian work and life. The Blind 
Institute, the Association for Deaf and Dumb, all refugee organizations, the many / 
orphan asylums she has helped, her former students, representatives of churches / 
many miles from Seoul, people of all classes and groups, all united to honor a / 
Christian missionary woman. 

Rev, Horace H, Under/'ood, Ph.D, 

Chosun Christian University 
Seoul, Korea 
March 27, 19h9 


Cable Address "Inculcate, New York" 

Telephone Watkins 9-2000 

foreign Missions and Overseas Jnterekureh Serviee 

The Board of Foreign Missions 
of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America 

156 Fifth Avenue, New York 10, N. Y. 

Mrs. Horace H. Undenvood 
Memorial Minute 

Adopted by the Prest^erian Board of Foreign Missions 

April 19, 19h9 

The Board made record of the death of Mrs. Horace H, Undervrood on March 
17, 19^9, at Seoul, Korea. 

Miss Ethel Van T/agoner was born April 11, 1888, at Kingston, Michigan. She 
graduated from High School in 1907, from Albion Collejge, Albion, Michigan, in 1911, 
and in 1925 received her Master’s Degree from the New York University School of 
Education. She had become a member of the Methodi st Prote stant Church vdien she was 
l6 years of age and, with a strong sense of Chr i s t iarTrSTs s ion, she went to Korea in 
1912 as a teacher in the School for Foreign Children at Seoul, There she met Horace 
H. Under.vood, whose father was the founder of Chosen Christian College (now Chosun 
Christian University), Upon the compD.etion of her term of service she returned to the 
United States and applied to the Prestyterian Board for missionary service in Korea. 
After her appointment, she was married to Horace Underv;ood on December 6, 191^, and 
returned with him to Korea the next year. They were assigned to Seoul in connection 
with the College there, and across the long years she assisted her husband at the 
College, established her home, raised the children and was active in every good work. 
At the outbreak of the war in 19hlj the Underwoods and three of their children were 
in Korea, After various experiences of internment, they came to the United States on 
board the "M.S. Gripsholm ” in the summer of 19ii2, They were active here in the • 

United States for the cause of Korean freedom and at the war’s end Dr, Underwood went 
back to Korea with the American Military Governm.ent, Mrs. Underwood follovied her 
husband in 19it6. For three years, first vdth the government and then once more with 
the College, she served the land which she loved so much. 

On March 17, 19h9, I-h’s, Underwood returned from an early afternoon class 
at Chosun Christian University. She v^as entertaining the faculty wives at a tea, 
where a prominent Korean v^oman v^as to speak. The meeting had already begun and she 
v;as sitting near the door of the library, when an armed man broke into the house 
from the front. He turned toward the library but lirs, Underwood stopped him. Another 
man had come in through the kitchen and had forced the cook to lead him to the meeting. 
This second man shot twdce, one bullet fatally wounding Mrs, Underwood, The men then 
put masks over their faces, irarned the women to be quiet, and fled, A former servant, 
\dio had some experience in first aid, cared for Mrs, Undenvood while the University 
car vras being called. Her only words were in Korean, '’It's all right,” She ivas 
taken by car to Severance Hospital but was pronounced dead upon arrival. 

Her funeral was held in the First Presbyterian Church in Seoul on March 
22nd and she was buried in the cemetery at Seoul. The funeral was an occasion for a 
vast outpouring of love and affection on the part of the Korean community. Literally 
tens of thousands lined the road from the church to the cemetery and representatives 
of the President and of most of the influential Korean and foreign dignitaries were 

- 2 - 

Mrs, Ethel Underwood’s activity as a missionary v/as not at all limited to 
the part that she played as the wife of the President of Chosun Christian University, 
There she was active, of course, as a hostess, as a teacher and as friend of faculty 
and students, but in her own right she established herself as one of the leaders of 
Christian work in Korea, After the war her home was a center of distribution for 
relief supplies and just before her death she was considered by many as the 
outstanding administrator of church relief in Korea, She was active in the 
rehabilitation of refugees and particularly v;as interested in making a home for orphan 
girls. This v;as the activity that consumed a good share of her time and energy 
ir.imediately preceding her death. Her place cannot be filled by anyone else; 
certainly the Christian Church and the nation of Korea have lost a staunch and devoted 

The tragedy of her death came as a shock in Korea and in other parts of the 
world. Expressions of appreciation and sympathy have come to the Board from many 
sources, both here in America and abroad. One of her missionary colleagues has 
written an article about her entitled, "1^ Most Unforgettable Character," The "Seoul 
Times" carried an editorial after“lTer^uheral, in v^rhich it called upon the nation of 
Korea for a mood of sober examination in the face of the tragedy that resulted in the 
death of one so greatly beloved. A Korean leader has ivritten, "We are proud to have 
this friend. She loved us vath her life and v^ith her death, God, help us to be 
worthy of her friendship." 

Mrs, Underwood is survived ty her husband, who remains at his post in 
Korea; by two sons, John and Horace, a daughter-in-law and grandchild, v/ho are v;ith 
the Mission in Korea; by three children in the United States, Rev, James T, Underwood, 
who vdth his wife and two children lives at Hancock, New York, and Richard and Grace 
vdio are still students in college. To all of these, the Board expresses its sincerest 
sympathy and prays that God's> comfort may rest upon them. 

The first cable from Korea stated that "Ethel Underwood had been shot by 
an unidentified assailant," Though considerable time has elapsed and many theories 
have been advanced, still ^^e_iicsas sin has not been clearly identified nor has the 
motive been fully revealed. It is clear, however, that Mrs, Underv/ood^s death is 
one of martyrdom for the Cause of Christ, In carrying on her activities as a 
Christian missionary and in the protection of her friends, she gave herself for 
them. Her family v/ould be concerned lest there be any undue blame attached to the 
Koreans, vJiom she loved better than her ovm life. And they would be concerned if 
this tragedy should result in any lessened interest in missionary activity in Korea. 

Actually in times past, "The blood of the martyrs has been the seed of the 
Church, " There is no reason to believe that this will not be true now. Once in 
the early history of the Church in Korea, an Englishman was- shot ty an assassin in 
northern Korea. Today the Thomas Me morial ty angelistic Society is active within the 
Church in Korea and since the v;ar ha^'ofganized 26 new congregations. Indications 
are that MxTs. Underwood's death is also serving as a stimulus to the Christian cause, 
both in Korea and in this land, A number of inquiries have come to the Board 
concerning the possibility of service in Korea and at least one young couple has 
definitely applied to take Mrs, Underwood's place,. 

More than 30 years ago, when Miss Ethel Van Wagoner was appointed by the 
Board, a Mrs, McKaley in who se home Miss Van V/agoner worked while completing high 
school, was asked^l'or her opinion as to Miss Van Wagoner's general fitness for 
missionary v/ork. Her answer was as follows: "The best answer I can give is that when 
I knew her, she was always lqoking_ilu:!- a.-liard,_4 ob , " Bishop Harrds of the Methodist 

Church in Korea was also asked at that time to describe her Christian personality* 

He answered with three adjectives: ’’Magnetic, charming, attractive.” On Mrs. 
Underwood's application for service, there was the following question: ”Do you 
realize that certain privations and sacrifices. ..are often necessarily involved in 
a missionary career, and do you seek missionary appointment with the full knowledge 
of such possibilities and readiness to meet them with persistent courage for Christ *s 
sake?” To this question Mrs. Underwood replied; ”No one knows it better. The work 
is worth it all. ” 

Such devotion across the years, climaxing in the gift of life itself, is a 
humbling challenge to all those who seek to serve the Master. 

(Note: The Board participated, in cooperation with the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian 

Church of Brooklyn, in a Memorial Service at that church on the evening of April 8, 


Chosiin Christian University 

Seoul, Korea 
May 1948 

Dear Friends. : 

Things do move under God’s guidancel Since writing you the Mission lias been formally re- 
organized after a lapse of seven years; Severance Medical College has called Dr. Fletcher and two Cana- 
dian nurses and the whole institution is on the upgrade; our girls’ school is doing well under Mrs Pilyi 
Kim, one of the finest of our educated Christian women, (a childhood playmate of Horace’s!); The AYest 
Gate Church (Dr. Underwood’s old church) has been completely rebuilt and is a splendid Christian 
witness to all who pass; the C. C. University moves on even with Dr. Paik speaking among you in America; 
the Alumni have completed the new statue of Dr. H. G. Underwood to replace the one destroyed by the 
Japs; the AVCTU held its first conference since 1938, secured two full time workers; by their request 
the Foreign Auxilliary lias been reorganized- the WCTU will be really busy from now on! 

We started the year joyfully with 98 New Year’s day callers. Since then we have had almost 300 
guests at our table, some sixty committees and conferences in our library and many friends have spent 
the night with us. Horace Grant took over one of my classes but even so I had 205 exam papers to 
grade in February and have had 482 compositions to correct. More than 700 letters have been written 
to generous friends. Few reports have been sent even where most needed. 

Relief work has been strenuous and exciting : for weeks we have nothing to distribute but try to 
comfort those sent away empty handed. Then comes a truck load of goods or parcels by post. Bales 
and packages must be opened, address noted, so that letters however inadequate, may be sent. Helpers 
are called in to sort clothes and make up bundles for families to send to churches and camps, the house 
is cluttered with great piles none of which must be “mixed up”! From Dec. 9th to the end of the year 
7G76 persons recieved clothing here. Since the New Year 19,789 people in 4,05G families living in 114 
communities have been given help from this house. To tins must be added 1598 pairs of IiARA shoes, 
1G72 garments made for men, and 493 quilts made from LARA scraps and patlded with Korean donated 
cotton. These 30,000 helped still leaves a list of 5423 unfilled requests! W® need your help, j’our 22 
lb International Post Packages. Men are our greatest problem. The^’ must have clothes or they cannot 
work, teach or preach. 

By contrast with the clothing situation S. Korea is well fixed for food, but the improvement in 
babies fed on powdered milk in February was so great that we have tried to broaden this field of 
service. In Seoul alone G1 milk stations feeding 9230 children have been opened and 37 more districts 
are clamoring for milk to feed 5410 other children! To ran these adequately will take 40 tons a month, 
480 tons a year of milk! A careful survey is being made to determine what can and what AIUST be 
done. As it is now the milk does not fall like manna but requires weekly trips from National to 
Provincial to City AA'elfarc OflSces and back to Food Administration, and once secured is hauled by us 
in a long suffering jeep and trailer. 

I thank you for Readers Digests. Please continue to send your used 1948 issues. Tablets, pencils, 
notebooks are always needed: 

Good news which cannot be omitted is the wonderful record of Korea’s first ellection-ovcr 90?^ of 
possible voters registered and over 30 % of those registered actually went to the polls to an election 
conducted with a degree of peace and order tliat would shame many long established democracies! May 
God grant that these people achieve real independence and tliat they may not again be the victim of 
Godless force.! 

S trees of relief work and hundreds of callers on relief has made me neglect all of you. Even 
now time fails to tell of the beauties of the gai’den of, John now en route to Tientsin via L. S. T to bring* 
back more refugees, of Joan operating milk stations for 14C0 babies, of Horace Grant or of our grand- 
son. We hope you will forgive, w’ill remember Korea and pray for Korea, for Koreans and for those 
working with them; 

Your help-material help and spiritual help is greatly needed and deeply appreciated; 


Ethel Underwood 





April 8, 1949 

Dr. Harry A. Rhodes 
Presbyterian Church 
Ravenswood* West Virginia 

Dear Dr. Rhodes; 

I have both of your letters* December 2 and March 22* before me. I 
presume by now you have received the mimeographed letter which I sent out 
so that you have the news enclosed. This is Just to acknowledge these two 
letters from you. 

You may have also received the new publication "Korea Calls". How 
widely this was distributed* I do not know. It w«^ being edited in place 
of the Korea Mission Field by the missionaries on the field with Joan 
Underwood as editor. However* it is being published in Berkeley by 
E. H. Miller. I do not think it is intended to be primarily a news sheet. 

You asked about the *^ff'n1n°ry Tt really is in a very critical 

situation. Things are heading up for a first-class head-on collision* I 
am afraid. General Assembly meets on the 19th where the whole problem 
will come to a head. We are hoping and praying that it can be solved 
without a split in the church. As a Mission* we have tried to maintain a 
more or less neutral position* but even neutrality sometimes tends to throw 
you on one side or the other euad both sides continuously accuse us of being 
on the other side. "If only*" they say, "we would come on side it 

would give such strength that the problem would be quickly settled". 

The fact that one seminary has technical recognition of the General Assembly 
seems to be somewhat aside from the point for on several occasions the 
Board of Directors have flouted the desires of the Assembly. We are still 
working for a reconciliation* but a letter just received from Ham Tae Yung 
in reply to one of mine would seem to Indicate it was almost hopeless* 

Your last letter I will present to the Executive Committee which meets 
in a week. We will then try to get someone on the job of preparing the 
information you want. I do not know of anyone leaving for the States im- 
mediately* but we will be on the look-out for an opportunity to ship the 
materials here back to you* 

May God bless you and Mrs. Rhodes as you continue to serve Him both in 
your church at Ravenswood and in this job for the Korea Mission. 

Very cordially* 

Edward Adams 


Rev. Harry A, Rhodes, D. D. 
JJay 3 , I9U6 

On April 11, 19^6 a group of Korean educators arrived in Washington, D*C#, as 
guests of the United States government which is trying by this visit to aid the Korean 
people in establishing a free educational system# A part of the plan is to initiate 
an exchange of students and instructors between this country and Korea, 

During the first week of May this group of six visited New York for a few days 
and on the afternoon of May 3rd they were invited to the Assembly Room of the Presby- 
terian Board of Foreigyi Missions to meet an inter-denominational group of missionaries 
and Board socrotaries, and to have tea together. 

In addition to graduation from schools in Korea, Japan and China, all six had 
been graduated from collegos and universities in this country. In all they had attend- 
ed 25 different schools and colleges on both sides of the Pacific and has received 12 
degrees in this country including B#S#, M,A# and Ch#E# from Columbia University; M»A, 
and Ph,D# from the Ikiiversity of Michigan; l'i,D,from Emory University and Ph#D. from 
the University of So# California# Five of the six had attended Mission s chools in 
Korea and all six are Christians# 

They were selected, of course, because of their educational qualifiqations. 

This is indicated by the vrork they have done and by the positions to wrhiclFl^Ve been 
appointed in Korea by the United States government. Their names and various fields in 
education are as follows: (According to Oriental custom the surname is given first)# 

Chang Lee Wook was principal of a Boys* Academy in Syenchun ^ the north of 
Korea, an'd lias 'been appointed as Head of the Sooul Normal College, 

Kim Hoon Lincoln, who has traveled around the world, is to bo the Administrative 
Officer of the Buro'au of Agriculture and ComiTiercc in Korea, 

Miss Koh Vfhang Kyxmg, teacher of Economics and Sociology in Ewha College for 
Y/omen in Seoul, Principal of the Kyunggi Girls School in Seoul, 

Koo Byron R, S#, who for some years v/as Doan of the Severance Union Modical 
College in Seoul and Professor of Pediatrics, is to bo Head of Medical Education of 
South Korea, 

InhKi][fo,v/ho has served under the U, S, Military Command as Chemical Engineer, 
is to be Executive Secretary of tho Technical Supervisory Board of the Bureau of Mining 
and Industry, 

Moon Chang Yfook, who has been Professor of History and English in tho Methodist 
Theological Seminary in Sooul, has been appointed Civilian Secretary of Foreign Affairs 
under the U# S# Army Military Governraent, 

Dr# Koo is the oldest of the group. He was on the Staff of the Severance Union 
Medical College and Hospital for more than twenty years, from which institution an 
estimated 6 OO Korean physicians have graduated (complete statistics not available) 
and 300 Korean nurses from the Nurses* Training School, Dr, Koo is one of the out- 
standing and consecrated leaders of the Korean Methodist Church, 


Dr* Koh is the youngest of the group and in some respects the most highly 
trained* She has an LL*B* in law from Doshisha University in Japan; she received her 
M*A* and Ph*D* degrees from the University of Michigan* She belongs to a remarkable 
family* Her grandfather Koh was one of the first Korean elders in the Fusan Church in 
South Korea* Her father, M* H* Koh, M*D*, as a boy received his first lessons in 
English from the v;ife of a medical missionary in Fusan; became a fine surgeon who has 
taken post-gradmte courses in medicine in this country; and is an elder in the church. 
This daughter took for herself the English name "Evelyn" while her sister who is a 
graduate of Georgia Wesleyan College in music, is known by the name "Gladys", ^ 

These two girls, contrary to Korean custom, are not married* They are full-time 
Christian workers in music, education and social service* They organized social welfare 
T/ork in one of the most populous suburban districts of Seoul* With the help of Korean 
and American friends they have financed the project* An interesting interview with 
Miss Evelyn Koh appeared in the New York Times of May 6 under the title, "Freedom is 
Sought for Korean Yfomon"* Miss Koh is now in Grand Rapids, Michigan where she will 
address the National Association of ..Presbyterian Women of the Presbyterian Church, U,S,A* 

It was to be expected that these six Korean educators in meeting a group of 
missionaries and Board secretaries on May 3 in New York would not bo free to speak on 
political conditions in Korea, since they are in this country as guests of the U* S* 
government* They did, however, tell us something about the condition of the Christian 
Church in Korea* For the most part their reports were encouraging* They doubted how- 
ever, that the Union Korean Church which was organized under Japanese pressure, will 
continue to function* There is a division also over certain Korean Church leaders who 
were forced to yield to Japanese demands in the matter of obeisance at the Shinto shrines. 
Incidentally, the main Shinto shrin e in Korea known as the Mejii Shrine, located on South 
Moxmtain inside the city of Seoul and costing 2, 000 , Q00_Yen to build, has been tom 
down; on the site this year an E aster su nr ise servaoe~was held. 

One unforgettable impression that these six educators Made on the missionaries 
and Board secretaries present was the deep appreciation, amounting to affection, of the 
Koreans, for the missionaries; of the lasting good results of missionary vrark in Korea; 
and of the Koreans* desire that all the missionaries might be returned to Korea soon 
to help reorganize the Christian movement in this new day of Korea»s freedom, at least 
in the south* 

The political situation in Korea is impossible with the country divided at the 
38th parallel* As yet under Russian occupation in the north, where t\vo-thirds of the 
Christians live, there is no freedom; and Koreans report conditions there worse than 
they were under the Japanese* In the south, however, where -two-thirds of the population 
of Korea is to be found, there is hope for better things* The bringing of these Korean 
educators to this country is only one item# Preceding -them ten Korean physicians came 
who are now studying at Har-vard and John ‘Hopkins Universities and at the University of 
Michigan* It is hoped that the return of the missionaries to Korea will be accelerated 
by the State Department* No other group of friends of the Korean people can be of more 
help to them at this time# Already many Christian leaders are officials in the Korean 
government I’diich is being formed under the U*S# Military Occupation and which the Koreans 
desire to bo continued as long as the Russians are in the north. 

Again as after the Russo-Japanese war in 1905» Korea suffers from a bad decision 
meuio by the "big" powers; this time it is from the decision made at Yalta or at Potsdam, 
which postpones fulfillment of the promise made at Cairo* Had the American occupation 
extended throughout Korea, the period of "trusteeship" could have been shortened, Korea 
would have been able to form her o-wn government, and the successful "Philippine experi- 
ment" would havG been repeated* Meanwhile, Korea must -wait for the realization of the 
freedom she thought she -was obtaining; and v/hilo v/aiting -there will be -the doubt v/hether 



or not Russia will evacuate north Korea, into v/hich as yot no missionaries arc allowed 
to ontcr. The equipment of some churches, both Catholic and Protestant, in north Korea 
has been destroyed by the Russians and Korean Communists* Pastors and other church 
officers have been imprisoned* 

Hov/over, the right v/ill finally win* The strong Christian church in north Korea 
will survive the storm* The evangelization of the Korean people, though temporarily 
interrupted, v/ill finally be consummated* Not even Russia v/ill bo allowed to thwart 
God*s purposes in the end* Wo believe the Christian forces in this and other lands 
v/ill not bo discouraged* Prayer and work under the power of the Holy Spiri-^vpAl 
bring complete freedom to the Korean people and the Korean Church* The six /Christian 
educators whom wo mot are only a few of a largo number of capable Korean leaders who 
are prepared to load in the ro-ostablishmont of their country to take her place among 
the free nations of the world* 

Princeton, 1|* J 
May 10 , 19^6 

B 2 .rry A* Rhodes 


Seoul, Korea, November 20, 19U6 

Dear Fellow Missionaries: 

Knowing that you are eager for more and more news from Korea, I am writing 
this second letter to be mimeographed and sent out by the Board. 

The second meeting of the Emergency Executive Committee was held in Seoul 
in the Holder of t-Kumabe house, November 6 and 7 in four long sessions, with all mem.* 
bers present: Dr. Rhodes, Chairmanj libr. Coen, Secretary; Dr. Blair, Dr. Lampe, Ifr. E. 

Adams, Dr. Fletcher, and Mr. Voelkel. 

A summary of the actions taken is as follows: Dr. Blair was asked to reside 

in Taiku vhere Edward Adams is overloaded with Korean and Station v<rork. Before leav- 
ing Seoul on November 15, Dr. Blair conducted meetings with tho 3 OO students and 
faculty of tho Presbyterian Theological Seminary with very marked spiritual results, 
so m\,ioh so that ho v/as asked to continue tho meetings, which was impossible at tho 
present time. Now in Taiku, ho. Dr. Crane, and othcis are assisting in a retreat for 
pastors and officers of tho Presbyterian General Assembly of South Korea. This is 
to be fcllov/cd by a Biblo Class for tho Taiku district, and later by a session of 
the Hon^s Biblo Institute. 

Mr. Coen vrc,s appointed to secure, if possible, books in English from America 
for Koreans and Korean Institutions, fcny of you may bo ablo to help in this. Tho 
United States postal authorities hero toll mo that packages marked "Books'* can bo sent 
by ordinary mall at 12/ per pound (with a limit of i; pounds 6 ouncos) to missionaries, 
as vrcll as to Koreans » In lino v;ith this action, tho Prosbycorian Theological 

Seminary hero sent in a formal request for a full-time teacher and for books for thoir 
libra^'yc Wo replied that while wo could not assign to tho Seminary a full-timo teacher 
(Mr« Coon and Ifr. Fraser are already assisting), wo would try to help in the securing 
of books- 

A request from Kyungpuk Presbytery to assist in tho founding of a University 
in Taiku, including a theological department, v/as declined. l-£r. Adams v/as given per- 
mission to grant Presbytery tho temporary uso of tho Biblo Institute Building for a 
session of tho institute. Mr. Coen, Dr. Fletcher and Dr. Rhodes wore appointed tho 
Mission reprosontatives on tho Board of tho Chungsin Girls* School of Seoul. Vfo have 
had two mootings of the Board v/ith Mrs. Choi (Kim Pilloy) who has consented to act as 
Principal for the present. The Korean members want to open the School in December, 
but it may not bo possible to open until Soptombor of tho next yoar. 

It was voted to present to tho authorities here, for immediate return, tho 
names of I/Ir. and iiTs. John J. Genso, Rev. and Mrs. Archibald Campbell, Misses Daisy F. 
Hendrix, Mhrion E. Hartnoss, Joan Doimartor, Rev. Goorgo F. Adams and Rev. John Y. 
Crothcrsc Since we mot vro have word that Mrs* Crothers may be ablo to cone also. Mr. 
George Adams has writton that he hopes tc sail in January. 

Wo are informed that the list vto presented after our Soptenbor mooting has 
been approved. Tho names presented w'oro: Mrs. Henry W. Lampe, Mrs. Archibald Fletcher, 

llbrsa Ed\7ard Adams, litrs' Frederick S. Miller, Misses Olga C® Johnson and Edna M. Lai'rcrxjo. 
In additaon^ tho Emergency Executive Committee has approved tho rot\u*n of Misses Gorda 
0* Bergman and I/Iinnio C, Davie; Dr. and lirs. Welling T. Cook, ReV' and Itrs. Harry J. 
Hill;. Rev, and Mrs. Charles L. Phillips, but their names have not boon presented hero 
untij. wo have v/ord from tho Board that tho persons named can come? Additional names 
will be considered at our mooting on Dooombor 17* As yet permission is not given to 
wives with children to return. 

Seoiaring passage is another obstacle to overeomo in addition to securing 
passports < but since yesterday in "Stars and Stripes” announces that the shipping 
strike is believed to be over, sailings for the Far East may bo possible# Experience 
shows that it is much better to get passage on a ship coming to Korea even though it 
stops in Japan# To disembark in Japan causes many days* delay and the hardships of 
train and ferry travel to Korea# In addition to the information you get from the 
Board, if you have questions to ask about what goods and how much to bring, write 
to Dr# Fletcher or myself, Wo are trying to gather information at this end and will 
send it to the Board as socm as possible# Miss Edith G# Myers arrived last week by 
air-plane from America in only a few days"* time# After working in Seoul a few weeks, 
she thinks she may bo assigned to Quopart# Bruce Hunt is hero and has located in 

Cur Committee extended a cordial invitation to Dr# John D# Bigger to return 
to the work of the Mission and urges the Board to do everything possible to hold him 
for a Mission assignment as soon as it is possible# His contract with the Allied 
Military Govexuamont terminates on December 22# He is undecided as to whether or not 
to renew it# Hhany event ho will probably make a short trip to America# A satisfac**<» 
tery mission assignment may not bo available at once# 

Arrangements with the United States Army authorities to provide living 
quarters for members of the Mission, as they return to tho field, are going on satis- 
factorily in all the four Stations in South Korea# A contract for Taiku, similar to 
tho one for tho Yundong compound in Seoul, was presented to the Committee# Ifr.Voelkel 
wi’itos that a beginning has already been made in Andong, and Dr# Lampe reported that 
arrangements have been concluded in Chungju# You will bo interested to know that Dr# 
Lampe is acting as temporary chaplain for our United States forces in Chung ju# 

Vfo have begun to consider tho survey vhioh tho Board asks us to mke for 
"Re-entering Occupied Fields"; it is on tho docket for our December meeting# At that 
time vrc expect to arrange a conference with all our missionaries in Korea, including 
those in government and Red Cross service. The number has boen increased by tho 
arrival of Mrs# Horace G# Underwood, in addition to Miss Myers# 

Mr# Coen and myself are appointed on a sub-committee to consider requests 
for personal property losses and present them at our next meeting# He has the lists 
which many of you presented but perhaps not all# If you have any questions or in- 
formation as to yoia* own list please write to J'r# Coon# In several of tho lists pre- 
sented to him, prices are net given and we will need this information# 

At tho time of our meeting on November $ and 7# also had a meeting in the 
Bible House with representative Koreans of the General Assembly, and v;ith members of 
other Missions in tho home of Dr# Jenson, including Drs# Crane and Hopper and Mr# 

George Anderson from out of town# Those meetings wore for consultation only, particu- 
larly in regard to our union institutions# 

It needs to bo emphasized again that tho immediate future of our work depends 
very much upon tho solution of the exchange problem* of vjhich there is no announoement 
as yet# If wo were thrown on our ovm. with tho official rate of I 5 to 1 still in force, 
it would bo too expensive for tho Board to support many missionaries hero# As it is 
we are limited, and all v/ho return must expect to do what they can within these limi- 
tations, as well as endiore many inconveniences in travel and living conditions# It is 
perhaps just as well that tho complete mission force vdll not be hero this winter# 

Each evening at nine the group of us hero moot for Bible reading and prayer# 
Messrs# Fraser, Scott, Fletcher, Coen and myself; also others who nay bo hero as guests# 
During our meetings ten of us slept in ‘Uiis housoj. Day by day wo ore often baffled as 
to hovr to proceed# Re lations the JCor eons- and with the Ifeitod States Army au- 
thdritics are cordial# IWb^foel very much tho need of Divine guidance# You also, wher- 
ever you are, can join us in our petitions » 


As y'ot v/o have no coinmunioation from Now York as to \vhen it nay bo possible 
for the Board*s Deputation to visit Korea* 

Meanwhile in the nidst of not a few disoo\iragenents# God’s work of Grace is 
manifested# Ifr* Fraser was present last Sunday in the morning sorvioo of a new church 
organized a year ago not far distant from Yudong, in the direction of Nansan# Ho saw 
thirty cqllogQ stxide*^bfi„-( 23 ^boys and 7 girls) baptized#^^ The Conrnunion service was 
?TSSiauctod by Rev# Andrew Whan^ (TTKang'XKT ^ vdio graduated from the Seminary 
in Tokyo and whilo'^'^student there ims in prison for five months# He was permitted 
to have books for reforonces .'in writing a competitive essay on the ’’History of Pro- 
testant Christianityj students from twenty-tv/o seminaries in Japan competed* One 
hundred fifty-six essays were submitted and li** lhang's was voted tho first prize by 
the judges* Night after night he appears in the churches of Sooul and Kyungkui 
province, showing an Italian film of tho ’’Life of Christ ” and rociting from memory 
passages of tho Gospols in explanation* Ho is an accomplished musician and plays vroll 
half a dozen different instrments in turn* In all his meetings ho is evangelistic 
and spiritual#' 

Thanksgiving and Christmas this year for us missionaries will bo different* 

Wo will be thinking of the splendid dinners o.nd tho delightful fellowship which wo 
enjoyed together in former years# However, tho Korean Christians are now taking their 
Thanksgiving offering and will bo observing Christmas as usual, and vire Liissionaries 
will join with them* There is still much for which to bo thankful, and the true moan- 
ing of Christmas is always present whorovor there are sincere Christians* Ails o wo can 
looiC forward hopefully to the future vdion missionary groups vdll bo in happy fellowship 
in Korea again* 

Very sincerely, 

Harry A* Rhodes 

Headquarters USAMGIK 
Chaplain’s Office 
liPO 235* 0/0 Postmaster 
San Francisco, California 


telephone WATKINS 9-2000 




Dr. Harry A. Rhodes 
170 S. Marengo Avenue 
Pasadena 5, California 

Dear Dr, Rhodes: 

Thank you for your letter of October 2, 1947. I 

am glad that you will help in the promotional work on the 
West Coast, As you surmised, the financial arrangement 
for that work belongs to the Home Base Department, 

As you say, the situation in Korea seems to grow 

worse from month to month. Russia’s suggestion that both 
armies withdra^r is no surprise to me for I expected that. 
Of course, that would mean that the Communists would take 
over and that they would have the backing of the Russian 
arny next door. It would simply be another Balkan situa- 
tion. Well, we shall see what the Assembly of the U. N. 
will do with the problem since it is now on their agenda. 


October 6, 1947 

Cordially yours 

A. K. Reischauer 
Acting Secretary